GMAT OG2017新增阅读Q419-423

GMAT OG2017新增阅读Q419-423

发布时间:2016-06-02 12:36:35字体: 文章来源:海翔GMAT培训

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GMAT OG2017新增阅读题目二:

GMAT OG17_GMAT复习资料

Questions 419-423

Historians remain divided over the role ofbanks in facilitating economic growth in the United States in the lateeighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Some scholars contend that banks played a minor role in the nation’s growing economy. Financial institutions, they argue, appeared only after the economy had begun to develop, and once organized, followed conservative lendingpractices, providing aid to established commercial enterprises but shunning those, such as manufacturing and transportation projects, that were more uncertain and capital-intensive (i.e., requiring greater expenditures in the form of capital than in labor).

A growing number of historians argue, incontrast, that banks were crucial in transforming the early national economy. When state legislatures began granting more banks charters in the 1790s and early 1800s, the supply of credit rose accordingly. Unlike the earliest banks, which had primarily provided short-term loans to well-connected merchants, the banks of the early nineteenth century issued credit widely. As Paul Gilje asserts, the expansion and democratization of credit in the early nineteenth century became the driving force of the American economy, as banks began furnishing large amounts of capital to transportation and industrial enterprises. The exception, such historians argue, was in the South; here, the overwhelmingly agrarian nature ofthe economy generated outright opposition to banks, which were seen as monopolistic institutions controlled by an elite group of planters.

 

419. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A.       compare the economic roleplayed by southern banks with the economic role played by banks in the rest of the United States during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

B.       Reevaluate a conventional interpretationof the role played by banks in the American economy during the late eighteenthand early nineteenth centuries

C.       Present differentinterpretations of the role played by banks in the American economy during thelate eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

D.      Analyze how the increasingnumber of banks in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries affectedthe American economy

E.       Examine how scholarly opinionregarding the role played by banks in the American economy during the lateeighteenth and early nineteenth centuries has changed over time


420. The passage suggests that the scholarsmentioned in the highlight part would argue that the reason banks tended not tofund manufacturing and transportation projects in the late eighteenth and earlynineteenth centuries was that

A.       these projects, being wellestablished and well capitalized, did not need substantial long-term financingfrom banks

B.       these projects entailed a levelof risk that was too great for banks’ conservative lending practices

C.       banks preferred to invest inother, more speculative projects that offered the potential for higher returns

D.      bank managers believed thatthese projects would be unlikely to contribute significantly to economic growthin the new country

E.       bank managers believed fundingthese projects would result in credit being extended to too many borrowers


421. The passage suggests that Paul Giljewould be most likely to agree with which of the following claims about thelending practices of the “earliest banks”?

A.       These lending practices wereunlikely to generate substantial profits for banks.

B.       These lending practices onlybenefited a narrow sector of the economy.

C.       The restrictive nature of theselending practices generated significant opposition outside of the South.

D.      The restrictive nature of theselending practices forced state legislature to begin granting more bank chartersby the early nineteenth century.

E.       These lending practices werelikely to be criticized by economic elites as being overly restrictive.


422. The passage suggests that theopposition to banks in the South in the early nineteenth century stemmed inpart from the perception that banks

A.       did not benefit more than asmall minority of the people

B.       did not support the interestsof elite planters

C.       were too closely tied totransportation and industrial interests

D.      were unwilling to issue thelong-term loans required by agrarian interests

E.       were too willing to lend creditwidely


423. Which of the following statements bestdescribes te function of the last sentence of the passage?

A.       It provides evidence tending toundermine the viewpoint of the scholars mentioned in the highlight part.

B.       It resolves a conflict over therole of banks summarized in the first paragraph.

C.       It clarifies some of thereasons state legislatures began granting more bank charters.

D.      It qualifies a claim madeearlier in the passage about the impact of banks on the American economy in theearly nineteenth century.

E.       It supports a claim madeearlier in the passage about how the expansion of credit affected the economy.


答案:CBBAD

 



解析:

Questions 419-423

Historiansremain divided over the role of banks in facilitating economicgrowth in the United States in the late eighteenth and early nineteenthcenturies.

Topic:银行在推动18世纪晚期和19世纪早期美国经济发展中发挥的作用

关于这个话题,历史学家们存在意见分歧

Some scholars contend that banks played a minor role in the nation’s growing economy. Financialinstitutions, they argue, appeared only after the economy had begun to develop,and once organized, followed conservative lending practices, providingaid to established commercial enterprises but shunning those, such asmanufacturing and transportation projects, that were more uncertain andcapital-intensive (i.e., requiring greater expenditures in the form of capitalthan in labor).

反方的观点:银行没发挥多大作用。

Agrowing number of historians argue, in contrast,that banks were crucial in transformingthe early national economy. When state legislatures began granting more bankscharters in the 1790s and early 1800s, the supply of credit rose accordingly. Unlikethe earliest banks,which had primarily provided short-term loans to well-connected merchants, thebanks of the early nineteenth century issued credit widely. As Paul Giljeasserts, the expansion and democratization of credit in the early nineteenthcentury became the driving force of the American economy, as banks beganfurnishing large amounts of capital to transportation and industrialenterprises. The exception, such historians argue, was in the South;here,the overwhelmingly agrarian nature of the economy generated outright oppositionto banks, which were seen as monopolistic institutions controlled by an elitegroup of planters.

正方观点:银行发挥了关键作用(虽然南方是例外)。 

文章总体对比了意见对立的两批历史学家对银行在18世纪晚期和19世纪早期美国经济发展过程中作用的不同看法。是一篇典型的观点对比类文章。

 

419. The primary purpose of the passage isto

A.       compare the economic roleplayed by southern banks with the economic roleplayed by banks in the rest of the United Statesduring the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

   不是比较南方银行和其他地区银行作用的不同

B.       Reevaluate a conventional interpretation of the role played by banks in theAmerican economy during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

      作者在文中没有态度,没有评价词,动词方向错误

C.       Present differentinterpretations of the role played by banks in the American economy during thelate eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

正确,介绍对银行角色的不同看法。

D.      Analyze how the increasingnumber of banks in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries affectedthe American economy

    只是一部分历史学家的观点,不是文章的主旨

E.       Examine how scholarly opinionregarding the role played by banks in the American economy during the lateeighteenth and early nineteenth centuries has changed over time

文章第一句话就说了historians remain divided,就是观点并没有改变。

选C


420. The passage suggests that the scholarsmentioned in the highlight part would argue that the reason banks tended not tofund manufacturing and transportation projects in the late eighteenth and earlynineteenth centuries was that

问在持消极观点的历史学家们看来,银行不资助制造和交通项目的原因,定位原文providing aid to established commercial enterprises but shunningthose, such as manufacturing and transportation projects, that were moreuncertain and capital-intensive (i.e., requiring greater expenditures in theform of capital than in labor). 可以推出是因为这些项目的特点:不稳定,且需要大量资本。

A.       these projects, being well established and well capitalized, did not needsubstantial long-term financing from banks 文章形容这些项目是uncertainand capital-intensive,说反了

B.       these projects entailed alevel of risk that was too great for banks’ conservative lending practices  风险太大,对应文章的uncertain这个描述,正确

C.       banks preferred to invest inother, more speculative projects that offered the potential for higher returns 没谈到收益高低的问题

D.      bank managers believed thatthese projects would be unlikely to contribute significantly to economic growthin the new country 没谈到项目对经济的贡献大小

E.       bank managers believed fundingthese projects would result in credit being extended to too many borrowers 没谈到会有多少人贷款的问题

选B


421. The passage suggests that Paul Giljewould be most likely to agree with which of the following claims about thelending practices of the “earliest banks”?

问的是PG的观点,先定位原文:Unlike the earliestbanks, which had primarily provided short-term loans to well-connectedmerchants, the banks of the early nineteenth century issued credit widely. AsPaul Gilje asserts, the expansion and democratization of credit in the early nineteenthcentury became the driving force of the American economy, as banks beganfurnishing large amounts of capital to transportation and industrialenterprises. 最早的银行的借代习惯是给那些本来资源就好的人提供短期贷款,按照PG的说法,后来的银行开始为交通业和工业提供大量资本。

A.       These lending practices wereunlikely to generate substantial profits for banks. 没有提到回报的问题

B.       These lending practicesonly benefited a narrow sector of the economy. 后来的银行借钱给交通业、工业部门,而早期的只借给well-connected merchants,所以的确收益面更窄,正确。

C.       The restrictive nature of theselending practices generated significant opposition outside of the South. 南方的情况是由南方的种植经济导致的,跟银行的贷款类型无关

D.      The restrictive nature of theselending practices forced state legislatureto begin granting more bank charters by the early nineteenth century.

     后来借贷的扩张不是由于早期银行贷款的谨慎态度导致的

E.       These lending practices werelikely to be criticized by economic elites as being overly restrictive. 文中没有提到economicelites,无中生有

选B


422. The passage suggests that theopposition to banks in the South in the early nineteenth century stemmed inpart from the perception that banks

问的是南方对银行的反感来自什么,先定位原文:here, the overwhelmingly agrarian nature of the economy generatedoutright opposition to banks, which were seen as monopolistic institutionscontrolled by an elite group of planters. 修饰banks的定语从句中说,银行在南方被认为是精英种植主群体控制的垄断组织,所以遭到反感。

A.       did not benefit more thana small minority of the people 只有精英种植主获益,正确

B.       did not support the interestsof elite planters  和文章意思相反,被精英种植主控制,正是保障他们利益的

C.       were too closely tied totransportation and industrial interests 没提到

D.      were unwilling to issue thelong-term loans required by agrarian interests

      没提到,无中生有

E.       were too willing to lend creditwidely 没提到

选A

423. Which of the following statements bestdescribes the function of the last sentence of the passage?

最后一句话是持正面观点的历史学家承认的一个银行作用的例外,银行对经济有促进作用,但南方没有体现。

A.       It provides evidence tending toundermine the viewpoint of the scholars mentioned in the highlight part. 高亮部分历史学家的观点是银行作用不大,这一句话也是说南方银行没发挥重要作用,是一个逻辑方向的,没有削弱

B.       It resolves a conflict over therole of banks summarized in the first paragraph. 这个事例存在也无法调和两种观点的矛盾。

C.       It clarifies some of thereasons state legislatures began granting more bank charters. 不是解释放宽贷款政策的原因的

D.       It qualifies a claim madeearlier in the passage about the impact of banks on the American economy in theearly nineteenth century.

这个选项首先要理解qualify的意思,是修饰、限定的意思,也就是说最后一句话进一步限定了、缩小了银行对经济起促进作用的范围,不包括南方。正确。

E.       It supports a claim madeearlier in the passage about how the expansion of credit affected the economy.

    最后一句话没说南方贷款增多了,有利于经济发展。

选D


答案:CBBAD

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