智哥GMAT阅读百篇精解_第19篇

智哥GMAT阅读百篇精解_第19篇

发布时间:2017-08-21 14:43:06字体: 文章来源:智哥GMAT阅读精讲

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PREP 07 Practice 2 Essay 13484

【题目纯享】

The modern multinational corporation is described as having originated when the owner-managers of nineteenth-century British firms carrying on international trade were replaced by teams of salaried managers organized into hierarchies. Increases in the volume of transactions in such firms are commonly believed to have necessitated this structural change. Nineteenth-century inventions like the steamship and the telegraph, by facilitating coordination of managerial activities, are described as key factors. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century chartered trading companies, despite the international scope of their activities, are usually considered irrelevant to this discussion: the volume of their transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.

 

In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships, built and operated offices and warehouses, manufactured trade goods for use abroad, maintained trading posts and production facilities overseas, procured goods for import, and sold those goods both at home and in other countries. The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation. For example, in the Hudson's Bay Company, each far-flung trading outpost was managed by a salaried agent, who carried out the trade with the Native Americans, managed day-to-day operations, and oversaw the post's workers and servants. One chief agent, answerable to the Court of Directors in London through the correspondence committee, was appointed with control over all of the agents on the bay.

 

The early trading companies did differ strikingly from modern multinationals in many respects. They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers' holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant. They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a premodern system of artisan and peasant production. Despite these differences, however, early trading companies organized effectively in remarkably modern ways and merit further study as analogues of more modern structures.

 

Question 1:

The author's main point is that

(A) modern multinationals originated in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with the establishment of chartered trading companies

(B) the success of early chartered trading companies, like that of modern multinationals, depended primarily on their ability to carry out complex operations

(C) early chartered trading companies should be more seriously considered by scholars studying the origins of modern multinationals

(D) scholars are quite mistaken concerning the origins of modern multinationals

(E) the management structures of early chartered trading companies are fundamentally the same as those of modern multinationals

 

Question 2:

With which of the following generalizations regarding management structures would the author of the passage most probably agree?

(A) Hierarchical management structures are the most efficient management structures possible in a modern context.

(B) Firms that routinely have a high volume of business transactions find it necessary to adopt hierarchical management structures.

(C) Hierarchical management structures cannot be successfully implemented without modern communications and transportation.

(D) Modern multinational firms with a relatively small volume of business transactions usually do not have hierarchically organized management structures.

(E) Companies that adopt hierarchical management structures usually do so in order to facilitate expansion into foreign trade.

 

Question 3:

The passage suggests that modern multinationals differ from early chartered trading companies in that

(A) the top managers of modern multinationals own stock in their own companies rather than simply receiving a salary

(B) modern multinationals depend on a system of capitalist international trade rather than on less modern trading systems

(C) modern multinationals have operations in a number of different foreign countries rather than merely in one or two

(D) the operations of modern multinationals are highly profitable despite the more stringent environmental and safety regulations of modern governments

(E) the overseas operations of modern multinationals are not governed by the national interests of their home countries

 

Question 4:

According to the passage, early chartered trading companies are usually described as

(A) irrelevant to a discussion of the origins of the modern multinational corporation

(B) interesting but ultimately too unusual to be good subjects for economic study

(C) analogues of nineteenth-century British trading firms

(D) rudimentary and very early forms of the modern multinational corporation

(E) important national institutions because they existed to further the political aims of the governments of their home countries

 


 

【参考答案】:CBEA

【智哥精解】

PREP 07 Practice 2 Essay 1348字,文,4个题

The modern multinational corporation is described as having originated when the owner-managers of nineteenth-century British firms carrying on international trade were replaced by teams of salaried managers organized into hierarchies. Increases in the volume of transactions in such firms are commonly believed to have necessitated this structural change. Nineteenth-century inventions like the steamship and the telegraph, by facilitating coordination of managerial activities, are described as key factors. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century chartered trading companies, despite the international scope of their activities, are usually considered irrelevant to this discussion: the volume of their transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.

 

In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships, built and operated offices and warehouses, manufactured trade goods for use abroad, maintained trading posts and production facilities overseas, procured goods for import, and sold those goods both at home and in other countries. The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation. For example, in the Hudson's Bay Company, each far-flung trading outpost was managed by a salaried agent, who carried out the trade with the Native Americans, managed day-to-day operations, and oversaw the post's workers and servants. One chief agent, answerable to the Court of Directors in London through the correspondence committee, was appointed with control over all of the agents on the bay.

 

The early trading companies did differ strikingly from modern multinationals in many respects. They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers' holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant. They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a premodern system of artisan and peasant production. Despite these differences, however, early trading companies organized effectively in remarkably modern ways and merit further study as analogues of more modern structures.

 


 

【参考译文】

现代跨国公司被描述为起源于19世纪的进行国际贸易的英国公司的业主经理被分阶层组织的领薪水的经理人团队取代的时刻。这样的公司的交易量的增加一般被认为使这种结构变化成为必须。19世纪的发明,比如蒸汽轮船和电报,通过促进管理行为的协调,并描述为关键因素。16世纪和17世纪特许的贸易公司,尽管它们的行为是国际范围,常常被认为是与这个讨论无关的:它们的交易量假设为很低,并且它们每天的沟通运输非常原始以至于不能与现代跨国公司相比较(这句话后半句貌似结构完整)

但是实际上早期的贸易公司非常成功地购买和装备了轮船,建立和创建了办公室和仓库生产了供海外使用的贸易货物,维持了交易站海外产品设施,进口的物品采购,在国内和其他国家售卖这些产品。与这些行为相关的的交易量似乎在现代沟通和运输的出现之前就需要层次管理结构。比如Hudson's Bay Company公司里每个遥远的贸易前哨(far-flung trading outpost一个领薪水的代理人管理,代理人美国本土人做贸易管理日常业务,并且看管前哨工人和服务员一位首席代理人被指定海湾负责控制所有的代理人,这位首席代理人通过联络委员会向在伦敦的董事会负责。

早期贸易公司与现代跨国公司在很多方面有显著的不同。它们早期贸易公司)严重依赖于它们的祖国的国家政府,从而典型地国外的行动来促进国家利益。它们的高管拥有大量的少数股份的所有者,然而现代跨国公司的高级经理人持有股份往往是无关紧要的(也即有没有股份无所谓)。它们运作在一个工业化的世界,把资本主义国际贸易系统嫁接到现代化之前的工匠和农民产品的系统。但是尽管有这些区别,早期贸易公司非常现代的方式进行了有效组织并且值得作为更加现代的机构的类似物进一步研究。

 


 

【文章脉络】:

现代跨国公司被描述为起源于19世纪的进行国际贸易的英国公司的业主经理被分阶层组织的领薪水的经理人团队取代的时刻——这样的管理结构的变化被认为是交易量大的结果——16世纪和17世纪的贸易公司被排除出这个讨论(因为交易量低,非常原始——是实际上这些公司有大量的交易并有现代化设备——其实也适用于管理等级制了(比如董事会——首席代理人——各地代理人——早期贸易公司确实和现在的贸易公司有不同之处(严重依赖国内政府,高管是股份的所有者)——尽管有这些不同点,这些公司值得作为现代跨国公司的类似物进一步研究

 

Question 1:

The author's main point is that

(A) modern multinationals originated in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with the establishment of chartered trading companies

(B) the success of early chartered trading companies, like that of modern multinationals, depended primarily on their ability to carry out complex operations

(C) early chartered trading companies should be more seriously considered by scholars studying the origins of modern multinationals

(D) scholars are quite mistaken concerning the origins of modern multinationals

(E) the management structures of early chartered trading companies are fundamentally the same as those of modern multinationals

主旨题。考点:

主旨(Main idea

旨在考察我们对文章整体的把握程度,对文章的结构的分析能力和把控能力,以及对作者逻辑的判断。

这篇文章比较长,作者的意图比较明显(注意时间点19世纪公司,和16世纪17世纪公司一开始说别人的观点是现代跨国公司起源于19世纪英国国际贸易公司,16世纪17世纪的早期贸易公司这个无关。后面说16世纪17世纪的早期贸易公司就有了等级管理制度,虽然现代跨国公司有很多不同所以想说明的一开始的观点是错误的也即早期的贸易公司值得作为现代跨国公司的类似物进行进一步研究。

选项分析:

(A) 现代多国公司起源于16,17世纪建立的特许的贸易公司。这个选项有一定的迷惑性。作者通篇文章确实是说了1617世纪的公司可以被认为是现代跨国公司的类似物。但是作者没有说明这些公司就是现代跨国公司的起源。也就是说,作者想要告诉大家的是19世纪以前的公司也有可能是现代跨国公司的起源,这个以前并不是一定是16,17世纪的公司。

(B) 和现代跨国公司的成功一样,受特许的贸易公司的成功主要依赖于他们可以实现复杂的操作。文中没有提到这个选项的内容更加不会是原文主题。

(C) Correct. 究现代跨国公司的起源的学者应更加注意考虑早期的特许贸易公司。考点中已经详述。

(D) 涉及现代跨国公司起源的问题,学者们的错误十分明显。这个选项也有一定的迷惑性,但有2错误1学者在原文当中没有明确出现,一开始的错误观点没说是学者的观点;2,作者确实在说一开始的观点是不太对的,作者的核心目的不是为了批评原观点,“说错误是表象,批评不是目的,搞清楚真相才是重点”。

(E) 早期受特许的贸易公司的管理结构基本上与现代跨国公司的管理结构相同。这个选项也比较有迷惑性。作者的主旨并不是为了说明管理结构的相似性而是通过说这个相似性来说明一开始的观点是错的,也即早期的贸易公司值得作为现代跨国公司的类似物进行进一步研究

 

Question 2:

With which of the following generalizations regarding management structures would the author of the passage most probably agree?

(A) Hierarchical management structures are the most efficient management structures possible in a modern context.

(B) Firms that routinely have a high volume of business transactions find it necessary to adopt hierarchical management structures.

(C) Hierarchical management structures cannot be successfully implemented without modern communications and transportation.

(D) Modern multinational firms with a relatively small volume of business transactions usually do not have hierarchically organized management structures.

(E) Companies that adopt hierarchical management structures usually do so in order to facilitate expansion into foreign trade.

细节题。考点:

应用(Application) 旨在考察我们对文章细节的深度认知,并达到可以应用总结的地步。

这种问题比较令我们头疼,因为通过题设没法准确定位。所以只能通过我们对文章的认知来定位每一个选项。

选项分析:

(A) 在现代的环境下,等级制的管理结构式最有效率的管理结构。作者在文中提到了等级管理结构,并说明了这是现代的管理结构,但是没有证明这样的管理结构是最有效率的。most是典型的extreme words,要警惕

(B) Correct. 对于常规都有大量的商业交易的公司来说采用等级制管理结构是必要的。这个选项定位在“Increases in the volume of transactions in such firms are commonly believed to have necessitated this structural change.”作者在接下来的文章中,阐述早期公司交易量也是这样说的。

(C) 没有现代交流和运输,等级制度管结构就不能被成功地实施。找到原文中“The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation.”这句话。可以证明作者认为没有现代交流和运输的情况下,等级管理结构也能成功地运用,定位句后面就列举了成功应用的例子。这个选项的定位比较费劲,但看到cannot这个extreme word多数就要考虑排除掉。

(D) 交易量相对小的现代跨国公司通常没有等级管理结构。作者没有提到交易量小的现代多国贸易公司是否用等级管理结构

(E) 采用等级管理结构的公司这么做是为了更容易的扩张到对外贸易。文中没有提到这个目的。

 

Question 3:

The passage suggests that modern multinationals differ from early chartered trading companies in that

(A) the top managers of modern multinationals own stock in their own companies rather than simply receiving a salary

(B) modern multinationals depend on a system of capitalist international trade rather than on less modern trading systems

(C) modern multinationals have operations in a number of different foreign countries rather than merely in one or two

(D) the operations of modern multinationals are highly profitable despite the more stringent environmental and safety regulations of modern governments

(E) the overseas operations of modern multinationals are not governed by the national interests of their home countries

细节题。考点:

推断(Inference) 旨在考察我们对文章的深度理解,以及逻辑推断能力。

这个题目比较容易定位,根据关键词很容易定位在文章的最后一段。读懂最后一段的三处不同就可以很容易的解决这道问题。要注意,问题中问的是,现代和早期的不同,文章中说的是早期和现代的不同。

选项分析:

(A) 顶级的现代多国公司的管理人员们拥有自己公司的股票而不仅仅是只领薪水。这个选项定位在“Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers' holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant.”早期公司是有股票,现代公司有没有股票无所谓。

(B) 现代的多国公司依靠国际资金贸易系统而不是不现代的贸易系统。原文中定位在“They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a premodern system of artisan and peasant production. ”早期公司嫁接了国际资金贸易系统,而不是现代公司。

(C) 现代多国公司在多个国家的进行运转而不是只在一两个国家内运转。文中并没有提到现代跨国公司到底几个国家有业务,而且早期公司也有才多个国家有业务的情况。

(D) 尽管环境残酷和现代政府的安全规定,跨国公司这样的操作依然有很高的利润。文中没有提到环境和安全问题,也没有说到利润高低问题。

(E) Correct. 海外的多国公司的操作并不受它们祖国的国家的利益所影响的。这句话定位在“They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. ”这里的“they”指代的是早期公司,也即早期的公司是国家利益受影响的,现代的公司是不受影响的。

 

Question 4:

According to the passage, early chartered trading companies are usually described as

(A) irrelevant to a discussion of the origins of the modern multinational corporation

(B) interesting but ultimately too unusual to be good subjects for economic study

(C) analogues of nineteenth-century British trading firms

(D) rudimentary and very early forms of the modern multinational corporation

(E) important national institutions because they existed to further the political aims of the governments of their home countries

细节题。考点:

支持主题(Supporting ideas) 旨在考察我们对文章细节的认知

这个题目定位在第一段的最后部分“Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century chartered trading companies, despite the international scope of their activities, are usually considered irrelevant to this discussion: the volume of their transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.”

选项分析:

(A) Correct. 与讨论现代多国公司起源无关。就是定位句提到的内容。

(B) 有趣但是最终太独特以至于不是作为经济研究的很好的主题。文中没有提到经济研究的主题这种内容。

(C) 19世纪英国贸易公司的类似物。文中最后部分提到了这一点,但是说的是早期贸易公司是现代的贸易公司的类似物而不是19世纪英国贸易公司的类似物。

(D) 是基本的且非常早期的跨国公司的形式。这个选项较易误选。作者在文中说的是,早期的贸易公司值得作为现代跨国公司的类似物来进一步研究但并没有肯定早期贸易公司就是现代跨国公司的早期形式。

(E) 重要的国家机构,因为它们存在可以加强它们祖国的政府的政治目标。文中在最后一段提到类似的点,但并没有定义成重要的国家机构而且也是不是被通常认为的点。

 


 

【智哥点评】:这篇文章比较长细节也很多,考的细节不算多应该不算难理解。但重要的是要搞清楚作者的核心意图,不少同学其实没有读懂作者的核心意图或原文核心结论,其实是这样的:一开始说早期公司与研究现代跨国公司无关,最后说其实很值得早期贸易公司作为现代跨国公司的类似物进行进一步研究。第1题的几个选项很值得反复推敲和不断琢磨墙裂推荐。

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