智哥GMAT阅读百篇精解_第18篇

智哥GMAT阅读百篇精解_第18篇

发布时间:2017-08-21 14:40:56字体: 文章来源:智哥GMAT阅读精讲

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PREP 07 Practice 1 Essay 182123

【题目纯享】

A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the late Pleistocene era. Researchers compared the number of tooth fractures in present-day carnivores with tooth fractures in carnivores that lived 36,000 to 10,000 years ago and that were preserved in the Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles. The breakage frequencies in the extinct species were strikingly higher than those in the present-day species.

In considering possible explanations for this finding, the researchers dismissed demographic bias because older individuals were not overrepresented in the fossil samples. They rejected preservational bias because a total absence of breakage in two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the result of abrasion within the pits. They ruled out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to the La Brea data. The explanation they consider most plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores--in particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct species. Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities.

 

Question 59800+

The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present several explanations for a well-known fact

(B) suggest alternative methods for resolving a debate

(C) argue in favor of a controversial theory

(D) question the methodology used in a study

(E) discuss the implications of a research finding

 

Question 60

The passage suggests that, compared with Pleistocene carnivores in other areas, Pleistocene carnivores in the La Brea area

(A) included the same species, in approximately the same proportions

(B) had a similar frequency of tooth fractures

(C) populated the La Brea area more densely

(D) consumed their prey more thoroughly

(E) found it harder to obtain sufficient prey

 

Question 61

The passage suggests that tooth fractures in Pleistocene carnivores probably tended to occur less frequently

(A) during periods in which more prey were available

(B) at sites distant from the La Brea area

(C) in older individual carnivores

(D) in species that were not preserved as fossils

(E) in species that regularly stole carcasses from other species

 


 

【参考答案】:EBA

【智哥精解】

PREP 07 Practice 1 Essay 18212字,短文,3个题

A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the late Pleistocene era. Researchers compared the number of tooth fractures in present-day carnivores with tooth fractures in carnivores that lived 36,000 to 10,000 years ago and that were preserved in the Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles. The breakage frequencies in the extinct species were strikingly higher than those in the present-day species.

 

In considering possible explanations for this finding, the researchers dismissed demographic bias because older individuals were not overrepresented in the fossil samples. They rejected preservational bias because a total absence of breakage in two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the result of abrasion within the pits. They ruled out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to the La Brea data. The explanation they consider most plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores--in particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct species. Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities.

 


 

【参考译文】

最近一个研究给更新世晚期(late Pleistocene era)的捕食者-食饵动态(洛特卡-沃尔泰拉方程,predator-prey dynamics)了提示。研究人员对比了现代的食肉动物和生活在36,000 to 10,000年前并遗存于洛杉矶的拉布雷亚牧场沥青坑中的食肉动物的牙齿折断数量。在灭绝物种的破坏频率要显著高于现代物种。

考虑对这个发现的可能的解释时,研究人员排除了人口统计学偏差因为更老的个体并没有在化石样本中有过分代表。他们排除了保存的偏差,因为两种灭绝的物种中的整体破坏显示了这些折断不是由于深坑内的磨损。他们排除了当地偏差,因为其他更新世的遗址所获得的破坏数据和LB的数据相似。他们认为的最合理的解释是在灭绝的和现代食肉动物的行为差别-尤其是捕食者的牙齿和捕食的动物骨头之间有更多的接触,因为需要灭绝的物种要对尸体有更彻底的消化。这样的对尸体的彻底的消化暗示给研究人员能捕食的数量比较低,至少有季节性,或者暗示了有杀戮的强力竞争并且由于捕猎者的高密度而导致的尸体偷窃。

 


 

【文章脉络】:

一个最近的研究提供了在Pleistocene时期捕猎者与被捕者的动态关系——灭绝动物的牙齿破坏比现代动物高——研究人员排除了三个偏见(人口统计学、保存、当地)——提出了最合理的解释(行为差异,对尸体更彻底的消化)——揭示了能捕食的数量比较低或者由于捕猎者的高密度而导致的尸体偷窃

 

Question 59800+

The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present several explanations for a well-known fact

(B) suggest alternative methods for resolving a debate

(C) argue in favor of a controversial theory

(D) question the methodology used in a study

(E) discuss the implications of a research finding

主旨题。考点:

主旨(Main idea

旨在考察我们对文章整体的把握程度,对文章的结构的分析能力和把控能力,以及对作者逻辑的判断。

这篇文章先提出了一个发现,然后排除了3可能的解释,最后提出最合理的解释,并由此引出暗含的情况。

选项分析:

(A) 展示出对于一个众所周知的事实的几个解释。这个选项其实干扰性比较强,如果把第一段的研究发现当作是一个众所周知的事实后面确实给出了3bias1plausible的解释,作者最终的目的是想说的最后一句话,也即这个事实所隐含的情况,而不是单纯只是解释这个事实的原因。

(B) 提出解决一个争论的其他方法。原文并没有出现debate只是排除了3bias的解释,然后给出一个plausible的解释,而这都是研究人员自己主动排除的,不是争论。

(C) 支持一个有争议的理论原文并没有出现任何有争议的理论。

(D) 质疑在一个在研究中应用的方法。原文并没有出现研究的方法。

(E) Correct. 讨论一个研究发现的含义。考点中已经阐述了,在此不再赘述

 

Question 60

The passage suggests that, compared with Pleistocene carnivores in other areas, Pleistocene carnivores in the La Brea area

(A) included the same species, in approximately the same proportions

(B) had a similar frequency of tooth fractures

(C) populated the La Brea area more densely

(D) consumed their prey more thoroughly

(E) found it harder to obtain sufficient prey

细节题。考点:

推断(Inference) 旨在考察我们对文章的深度理解,以及逻辑推断能力。

这个题目定位在“They ruled out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to the La Brea data. ” 第一段最后一句The breakage frequencies in the extinct species were strikingly higher than those in the present-day species这个就是具体相似点也即breakage frequencies相同答案就直接选B了。

选项分析:

(A) 包括相同的物种,和基本相同的比例。文中未提及具体的物种和其数量。

(B) Correct. 有相似的牙齿破坏频率。考点中已经说明,在此不再赘述。

(C) La Brea地区使其食肉动物的密度更大。文中未提及具体数量密度。

(D) 更加完全的吃掉它们的猎物。文中提到这点的地方在“more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct species”这是La Brea地区过去的物种和现代的物种的比较,不是La Brea地区其他地区比较。

(E) 发现找到足够的猎物更加困难。文中提到这点定位在“ Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally”D选项,La Brea地区过去的物种和现代的物种的比较,不是La Brea地区其他地区比较。

 

Question 61

The passage suggests that tooth fractures in Pleistocene carnivores probably tended to occur less frequently

(A) during periods in which more prey were available

(B) at sites distant from the La Brea area

(C) in older individual carnivores

(D) in species that were not preserved as fossils

(E) in species that regularly stole carcasses from other species

细节题。考点:

推断(Inference) 旨在考察我们对文章的深度理解,以及逻辑推断能力。

这个题目定位在文章的最后部分内容中。作者在这部分内容中的意思是,牙齿的破坏实际上是因为捕猎者牙齿与猎物的骨骼接触所造成的。这暗示了两个情况猎物过少或尸体被偷(捕猎者过多)。注意题目问的是“less frequently”

选项分析:

(A) Correct. 在有更多的猎物的时期。有了更多的猎物,捕食者就不用和尸体的骨骼打交道了所以牙齿的磨损就少了。而且考点中也解释了,猎物少牙齿损坏多,那么要想牙齿损坏少,就得猎物多。

(B) 在远离La Brea的地区。作者在前文中已经批驳了“local bias”。地域性和牙齿的磨损程度没有关系。

(C) 在年龄较大的食肉动物中。文中没有提到动物的年龄问题。

(D) 在没有被保存成化石的物种中。文中没有提到这类信息。

(E) 在习惯性的偷盗其他物种的尸体的种群中。这个选项说反了。考点中已经说了,“尸体被偷的多牙齿坏的

 


 

【智哥点评】:这篇文章总体的难度不大,主旨比较明确,第一段介绍,第二段议论,比较典型的GMAT文章。就是第一题的主旨题可能会费点劲,后面两个细节题只要定位准确没问题了。

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