智哥GMAT阅读百篇精解_第16篇

智哥GMAT阅读百篇精解_第16篇

发布时间:2017-08-21 14:36:42字体: 文章来源:智哥GMAT阅读精讲

【文/海翔GMAT名师jason,李智强】转载请注明出处,如未注明,我们会寻求法律途径保护该文章的知识产权。

 

PREP 07 Practice 1 Essay 162023

【题目纯享】

What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting territories, and how did they come to be? The dominant view in recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians (a group of North American Indian tribes) before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns. Another view claims that Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership by individuals and families. More recent fieldwork, however, has shown that individual and family rights to hunting territories form part of a larger land-use system of multifamilial hunting groups, that rights to hunting territories at this larger community level take precedence over those at the individual or family level, and that this system reflects a concept of spiritual and social reciprocity that conflicts with European concepts of private property. In short, there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system.

 

Question 53800+

The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) provide an explanation for an unexpected phenomenon

(B) suggest that a particular question has yet to be answered

(C) present a new perspective on an issue

(D) defend a traditional view from attack

(E) reconcile opposing sides of an argument

 

Question 54

It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?

(A) They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.

(B) They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.

(C) They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.

(D) They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.

(E) They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.

 

Question 55

According to the passage, proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and proponents of the view mentioned in the second highlighted portion of text both believe which of the following about Algonquian family hunting territories?

(A) They are a form of private landownership.

(B) They are a form of community, rather than individual, landownership.

(C) They were a form of private landownership prior to contact with Europeans.

(D) They became a form of private landownership due to contact with Europeans.

(E) They have replaced reciprocal practices relating to land use in Algonquian society.

 


 

【参考答案】:CDA

【智哥精解】

PREP 07 Practice 1 Essay 16202字,短文,3个题

What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting territories, and how did they come to be? The dominant view in recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians (a group of North American Indian tribes) before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns. Another view claims that Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership by individuals and families. More recent fieldwork, however, has shown that individual and family rights to hunting territories form part of a larger land-use system of multifamilial hunting groups, that rights to hunting territories at this larger community level take precedence over those at the individual or family level, and that this system reflects a concept of spiritual and social reciprocity that conflicts with European concepts of private property. In short, there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system.

 


 

【参考译文】

什么类型财产权适合A地区家庭捕猎区域它们又是如何形成的呢?最近几十年占据统治地位的观点认为家庭捕猎区域像其他私人土地所有权的形式,并没有在欧洲人接触之前在A人(北美印第安部落的一群人)中间找到而是欧洲-A地区的毛皮贸易所带来的A地区社会变化的结果,结合了其他因素,比如生态变化与之相应的在野生动物收割模式的改变。另一个观点宣称A地区家庭捕猎区域早于与欧洲的接触并且是个人和家庭的私人土地所有权的形式但是,最近的野外工作表明了个人和家庭的捕猎区域权利组成了更大的多家庭捕猎小组的土地使用系统,在这个更大的社区水平的捕猎区域权利优先于在个人或家庭水平的捕猎区域权利,并且表明了这个系统反映了一个欧洲的私人财产概念相冲突的精神与社会相互作用的概念。总之现在强大的理由来认为宣称说A地区家庭捕猎区域曾经是,或者正在变成一种私有财产系统错误的。

 


 

【文章脉络】:

什么类型财产权适合A地区家庭捕猎区域它们又是如何形成的呢?——占主流的观点是和欧洲人的接触(毛皮贸易)所带来的——另一种观点说是早于与欧洲的接触,并且是个人和家庭的私人土地所有权——现在认为这两者都不对,而更是多家庭组成的团体(社会层面,而不是个人或家庭层面——总之,不能说“A”是一种私有财产系统

本文是典型的先引出其它两个观点,然后进行驳斥并提出自己观点的文章。文章比较容易读懂,算比较简单。

 

Question 53

The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) provide an explanation for an unexpected phenomenon

(B) suggest that a particular question has yet to be answered

(C) present a new perspective on an issue

(D) defend a traditional view from attack

(E) reconcile opposing sides of an argument

主旨题。考点:

主旨(Main idea) 旨在考察我们对文章整体的把握程度,对文章的结构的分析能力和把控能力,以及对作者逻辑的判断。

本文是驳斥了两种其他观点,并提出自己观点的文章,在【参考译文】里已经阐述。

选项分析:

(A) 提供对一个意外的现象的解释。就算把“property rights”看成一个现象,作者没有说这是个意外现象。

(B) 提出一个尚未被回答的问题。文中提到的问题是“what kinds of property rights…and how did they come to be?”在文中已经被回答。

(C) Correct. 展示对一个事件的的观点。作者驳斥了两个观点,并提出自己新观点,很正确。

(D) 维护一个传统的观点使其不被被攻击。作者在文中攻击两个传统观点,不是保护传统观点。

(E) 调和争论的双方。作者没有调和以往的争论,而是提出自己的观点。

 

Question 54

It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?

(A) They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.

(B) They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.

(C) They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.

(D) They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.

(E) They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.

细节题。考点:

推断(Inference) 旨在考察我们对文章的深度理解,以及逻辑推断能力。

这个题目比较细节,定位在第一个高亮词(第一个观点)。主要讲的意思是“A”与欧洲人接触。

选项分析:

(A) 他们从多家庭狩猎领地中进化而来。multifamilial是作者的观点(第3“view”),不是第一个“view”

(B) 他们是土地应用实践的回馈结果。“land-use”是在作者最后提出的自己的观点中才出现的。不是第一个“view”的内容

(C) 他们基于确定的精神信条。Spiritual这个词是作者所持有的观点那部分才提到的。

(D) Correct. 他们是由于与欧洲人交流而发展的。很正确

(E) 他们是由于和非A的印度部落交易而发展的。文中没有提到和其他部落的交易

 

Question 55

According to the passage, proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and proponents of the view mentioned in the second highlighted portion of text both believe which of the following about Algonquian family hunting territories?

(A) They are a form of private landownership.

(B) They are a form of community, rather than individual, landownership.

(C) They were a form of private landownership prior to contact with Europeans.

(D) They became a form of private landownership due to contact with Europeans.

(E) They have replaced reciprocal practices relating to land use in Algonquian society.

细节题。考点:

支持主题(Supporting ideas) 旨在考察我们对文章细节的认知

这个题目在于找出两个高亮“view”的共同点。容易发现的,两个观点都提到了“landownership”,即这两个观点争论的地方不是“landownership”本身,而是这样的“landownership”到底是因何而形成。所以他们的共同点就是都承认“landownership”或者从最后进行反推,作者最后说宣布说a kind of private property system错误的也即前2view的共同点就是私有

选项分析:

(A) Correct. 他们都是一种私有土地所有制的形式。在考点中已经分析明确,这里不再赘述。

(B) 他们是一种社区,而不是个人的土地所有制。这个选项是作者的观点,不是两个高亮“view”的观点

(C) 他们是在和欧洲人交流以前形成的私人土地所有制。这个选项是第二个高亮“view”。不是两者的共同观点。

(D) 他们是一个由于和欧洲人交流而形成的私人土地所有制。这个选项是第一个高亮“view” 不是两者的共同观点。

(E) 他们替代了和A社会的土地应用所相关的实际回馈机制。这个选项的内容也是在作者观点中讲到的。不是前两个“view”

 


 

【智哥点评】:这篇文章典型的先引出其它两个观点,然后进行驳斥并提出自己观点的文章。文章比较容易读懂题目也真心简单,考试时要是真碰到这种水平文章,铁定是“掉库”了……

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